Plasma immersion ion implanted nitinol surface with depressed nickel concentration for implants in blood
Maitz M.F., Shevchenko N.
J Biomed Mater Res A
Ion implantation into nitinol had been shown previously to decrease the surface nickel concentration of this alloy and produce a titanium oxide layer. Nothing is known yet about the blood compatibility of this surface and the suitability for implants in the blood vessels, like vascular stents.
Nickel depletion of superelastic nitinol was obtained by oxygen or helium plasma-immersion ion implantation. The latter leads to the formation of a nickel-poor titaniumoxide surface with a nanoporous structure, which was used for comparison. Fibrinogen adsorption and conformation changes, blood platelet adhesion, and contact activation of the blood clotting cascade have been checked as in vitro parameters of blood compatibility; metabolic activity and release of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 from
cultured endothelial cells on these surfaces give information about the reaction of the blood vessel wall. The oxygen-ion- implanted nitinol surface adsorbed less fibrinogen on its surface and activated the contact system less than the untreated nitinol surface, but conformation changes of fibrinogen were higher on the oxygen-implanted nitinol. No difference between initial and oxygen-implanted nitinol was found for the platelet adherence, endothelial cell activity, or cytokine release. The
nanoporous, helium-implanted nitinol behaved worse than the initial one in most aspects. Oxygen-ion implantation is seen as a useful method to decrease the nickel concentration in the surface of nitinol for cardiovascular applications.